Before 1957 computers only worked on one thing at a time which was called batch processing. Computers were so big they had to be stored in special cooled rooms. Because programing was manual and there was an indirect connection there were a lot of bugs and wasted time. Then time-sharing was introduced; this was the ability to share one connection with multiple users.To secure America’s technological lead, after the soviet union sent a satellite into space on October 4, 1957, the US founded DARPA in February of 1958. At that time knowledge was only transferred by people so DARPA planned a large scale computer network to accelerate this process called the ARPANET. This lead to the RAND cooperation in America, The NPL in England and CYCLADES in France. These four things together are the foundation for the modern internet. Development of ARPANET started in 1966 when they put a small computer in front of the mainframe called an IMP and that took control of network activities while mainframe was only in charge installing programs and data files. The IMP Subnet was created since the IMP’s were only interconnected in a network. Then the TCP or transmission control protocol wad made to verify file transfers. From here packet switching was born in England to help avoid congestion from all the file transfers. In 1962 America discovered misses in Cuba able to reach the United States which created fear of nuclear conflict. Because of this they got rid of the centralized network architecture so if one was attacked they could still operate. The term internet was bork after connecting multiple networks. Then OSI was created which was an attempt to standardize networks. This lead to a standard which guaranteed compatibility between networks and merged them creating the internet. By February 28, 1990 ARPANET was removed but the internet was up and running.